Rabu, April 14, 2010
Pronoun Adalah kata ganti yang dapat menggantikan suatu kata benda atau frasa kata benda. Pronoun terbagi ke dalam 8 kelompok.
1. Personal Pronoun
kata yang menggantikan kata secara gramatikal menunjukan orang atau penamaan.
Two days ago I met Obama. Yesterday I met him again.
Please put the glass on the table. Put it carefully.
2. Possessive pronoun
kata yang menunjukan kepemilikan.
Its…. Tail Mine
Ditempatkan sebelum suatu kata benda Ditempatkan setelah suatu verba/to be
This is your wife and that is mine.
3. Reflexive pronoun
Kata ganti yang menunjukan kegiatan untuk pelaku sendiri dalam kalimat bersangkutan, atau memberi penekanan pada unsur subjek maupun objek.
Akhiran –self untuk bentuk singular
Akhiran –selves untuk bentuk plural
He laughed at himself.
She spoke to herself
4. Reciprocal pronoun
kata ganti yang menunjukan pengertian berbalas-balasan/saling
One another Bila orang/benda yang dimaksud hanya berjumlah 2
Bila orang/benda yang dimaksud > 2
Roma and Ridwan are friends.They help each other.
The students of ENTER are going to camping. They should help one another.
Merujuk pada sisa yang belum disebutkan
Another +N.s (one)
The other + N.s (one) Belum teridentifikasi
hanya berjumlah satu
Others / other +N.p
The others/ the other+N.p Belum teridentifikasi
Lebih dari satu
I don’t want to marry a girl from the same clan. I want from another clan.
Yang dinikahi pasti satu dan belum tentu suku jawa, sunda, batak, jawa, dayak, dsb.
I have two cars. One is a BMW and the other (one) is a jaguar.
Yang lainnya pasti yang selain BMW.
Bali bomb ruined sari club, kuta sari hotel, and other buildings (others) in Legian street.
There are four political parties gaining threshold. Two of them are nationalism-based parties, and the others (the other parties) are religion-based parties.
5. Demonstrative pronoun
Kata penunjuk berdasarkan suatu kedekatan; dekat atau jauh
That (is) These (are)
Those (are) Menunjuk benda dekat dengan pembicara
Menunjuk benda jauh dengan pembicara
This is my brother, these are my sister.
That is my book. Those are mine.
6. Interrogative pronoun
Kata Tanya yang mempertanyakan orang atau benda
Who eats my candy? Who are you talking about? With whom you go?
Whose car is this?
7. Indefinite pronoun
Kata-kata yang mengacu pada seseorang atau sesuatu yang dianggap tidak tentu.
Somebody, someone, anyone, anybody,one
No one Nobody
Di suatu tempat
Tak satupun, tak ada apa-apa
Tak seorangpun, tak satupun
Ungkapan dengan some….lazimnya digunakan untuk kalimat positif.
Ungkapan dengan any…lazimnya digunakan untuk kalimat negative atau pertanyaan.
I have …body that I really love.
Is there ….body home?
Bila ungkapan any…digunakan dalam kalimat positif, ungkapan ini memiliki arti yang mana saja, anyone/anybody; siapa saja, anything; apa saja.
I like anyone that I can share with.
8. Relative pronoun
Who, whom, whose, which, that.
EXERCISES for Chapter 18
1. In the sentences below, fill in the blanks with the personal pronouns which agree with the underlined antecedents. For example:
1. Because she is your friend, I offered to help ______.
2. I wish someone would tell ______ the answer.
3. They look familiar. I am sure we have met _______ before.
4. If you are ready, we will drive _______ home.
5. We would like you to call ______.
6. After the apples have been cut up, _______ should be sprinkled with cinnamon.
7. Because her husband used to study music, _______ knows how to play several musical instruments.
8. My neighbor and I like to go shopping together, so that _______ can help each other choose what to buy.
9. Her daughter likes to study, because _______ finds the work interesting.
10. The car is in good condition, but _______ needs a new muffler.
11. When the moon is full, ______ rises just as the sun sets.
12. Tracy and I like spending time together, because _______ share many interests.
13. When my uncle was young, _______ enjoyed playing soccer.
14. The students worked hard, because _______ were anxious to complete the assignment.
15. When the lady entered the hotel, ______ is asked to speak by the manager.
2. For each of the following sentences, fill in the blank with the possessive adjective which agrees with the noun or pronoun shown in brackets. For example:
___ barking kept us awake. (the dog)
Its barking kept us awake.
1. ____ following the guidelines was a good idea. (you)
2. _____ agreeing to forward the mail was helpful. (the students)
3. _________ answering the questions so easily was unexpected. (he)
4. ________ driving the car saved a great deal of time. (I)
5. ________ speaking so forcefully impressed the audience. (the woman)
6. ________ entering the race was intended as a gesture of goodwill. (we)
7. ________ chiming told us the time. (the clock)
3. Fill in each blank with the possessive pronoun which agrees with the underlined antecedent. For example:
If you cannot find your pen, I will lend you ____.
If you cannot find your pen, I will lend you mine.
1. Your coat may be warm, but I think _______ is more elegant.
2. Because I had no gloves, my niece offered me _______.
3. I forgot to bring my camera. Did you bring _______.
4. When I lost my map, your son lent me _______.
5. They discarded their old telephone directories, but we kept _______.
6. We have not planted our peas yet, but the farmers have planted ______ already.
7. I never cut my hair, but my sister cuts _______ once a month.
8. The neighbors' children are very independent, but we have to help _______.
9. We store our bicycles in the shed, but they leave ________ outside.
10. I water my plants every day, but you never water ________.
11. Although she likes her school, I prefer _______.
12. My niece studies for all her tests, but my nephew refuses to study for ________.
4. For each of the following sentences, fill in the blank with the reflexive pronoun which agrees with the underlined word. For example:
I found ______ in a difficult situation.
I found myself in a difficult situation.
1. He should take better care of ______________.
2. You may help ____________.
3. I saw it ________.
4. She likes to involve ____________ in community affairs.
5. We could see ______________ reflected in the mirror.
6. The bird perched _____________ on the window sill.
7. The students found the solution ______________.
8. You _____________ must decide what to do.
9. The teenagers amused ______________ by telephoning their friends.
10. We ______________ were surprised at the news.
11. He likes to hear ____________ talk.
12. She prides _____________ on her ability to speak French.
13. I told ____________ not to lose hope.
14. The fox hid _____________ under a bush.
5. For each of the following general statements, change all of the pronouns and possessive adjectives to agree with the pronoun given in brackets. For example:
- We must work to keep our environment healthy. (you)
You must work to keep your environment healthy.
- You should always pay your income tax before the deadline. (one)
One should always pay one's income tax before the deadline.
1. We should work in order to realize our ambitions. (one)
2. When you are overworked, you should try to give yourself time to relax. (we)
3. One can never be sure whether one's intuitions are correct. (you)
4. If one organizes one's time properly, one can accomplish a great deal. (we)
5. If you own property, you should protect yourself with a good insurance policy. (one)
6. We should never be afraid to state our views. (you)
7. One should try to educate oneself as well as possible. (you)
8. We should try to teach our children a sense of responsibility. (one)
9. One can choose one's friends, but one cannot choose one's relatives. (we)_______________________________________________¬¬¬-_________
10. We become mature when we learn to trust our own judgement. (you)
11. You learn from your mistakes. (we)
12. You should always treat your friends well. (one)
6. For each of the following sentences, fill in the blank with this or these. Use this to refer to a single person or thing, and use these to refer to more than one person or thing. For example:
____ is her bicycle.
This is her bicycle.
Is ____ jacket too large?
Is this jacket too large?
1. Does __________ bus go downtown?
2. __________ are their suitcases.
3. __________ is his camera.
4. __________ trees are over one hundred years old.
5. Is __________ flower a daffodil?
6. __________ women will perform the skit.
7. __________ is the main entrance.
8. __________ lakes are very deep.
9. _________ is their school.
10. Are __________ radishes?
7. For each of the following sentences, fill in the blank with that or those. Use that to refer to a single person or thing, and use those to refer to more than one person or thing. For example:
____ is a hovercraft.
That is a hovercraft.
1. __________ is his pen.
2. __________ girls are Australian.
3. Has __________ chair been painted?
4. __________ watches are not expensive.
5. Does __________ train usually arrive on time?
6. Was __________ your friend?
7. __________ are my cousins.
8. ___________ is a swan.
9. Do __________ notebooks belong to you?
10. __________ are the places we will visit.
8. Rewrite the following sentences, changing the subjects and verbs from the singular to the plural. For example:
Is this ready?
Are these ready?
1. This was finished last week.¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬-__________________________________
2. Is that radiator working? __________________________________
3. This picture is ours. __________________________________
4. That has been completed. __________________________________
5. This was designed by his aunt. _______________________________
6. That does not need to be altered. ______________________________
7. This table is made of wood. __________________________________
8. Has that student seen the play? _______________________________
9. This umbrella is new. __________________________________
10. That river flows through the mountains. _______________________
9. Rewrite the following sentences, changing the subjects and verbs from the plural to the singular. For example:
These were on sale.
This was on sale.
Are these books interesting?
Is this book interesting?
Those have been useful.
That has been useful.
Those plays were popular.
That play was popular.
1. These were necessary.
2. Those colors are beautiful.
3. Are these bells too loud?
4. Have those been polished?
5. These shirts are clean.
6. Those windows are on the west side of the house.
7. Are these correct?
8. These boys like to play soccer.
9. Those are sufficient.
10. Those curtains are crimson.
10. Paying attention to correct word order, arrange each of the following sets of words to form questions beginning with interrogative pronouns which are the objects of the verbs. If necessary, add the auxiliary do, does or did. For example:
-you, prefer, which
Which do you prefer?
- they, heard, what
What did they hear?
- we, have found, what
What have we found?
- I, should choose, which
Which should I choose?
1. they, have decided, what
2. you, want, which
3. I, should wear, what
4. she, said, what; what did she say?
5. he, likes, what does he like?
6. you, are reading, what
7. one, can do, what
8. they, bought, which
9. he, will be studying, what
10. I, saw, which
11. she, expects, what
12. they, had discovered, what
13. it, costs, what
14. you, would have done, what
15. he, will submit, which
16. she, received, what
11. For each of the following sentences, fill in the blank with the interrogative pronoun who or whom. Use who if the pronoun is the subject of the verb, and use whom if the pronoun is the object of the verb or the object of a preposition. For example:
___ is there?
Who is there?
____ are we expecting?
Whom are we expecting?
For ____ did you buy the flowers?
For whom did you buy the flowers?
1. _______ has read the book?
2. To _______ did he give the letter?
3. _______ is at the door?
4. _______ was awarded the prize?
5. _______ did he tell?
6. _______ answered the question correctly?
7. _______ does she like the best?
8. _______ would be the most suitable person for the job?
9. For _______ are they waiting?
10. _______ has been informed of the situation?
11. ________ can we ask?
12. _______ will be ready by eight o'clock?
13. _______ is watering the flowers?
14. _______ did you photograph?
15. _______ attended the meeting?
16. _______ was at the party?
17. _______ could be heard most easily?
18. ______ do you believe?
19. To _______ did you sell your car?
20. ______ will be waiting for us?
12. Paying attention to grammatically correct usage, for each of the following sentences, fill in the blank with who, whom or whose. In these sentences, use whose only as a possessive adjective, preceding a noun. For example:
_____ bicycle is leaning against the steps?
Whose bicycle is leaning against the steps?
1. By _______ was this written?
2. _______ gloves are lying on the table?
3. _______ lives here?
4. _______ did they help?
5. _______ child is this?
6. _______ was allowed to enter the competition?
7. _______ handwriting is the most legible?
8. With _______ was she speaking?
9. _______ sang the song?
10. _______ does she know?
11. _______ shoes are these?
12. _______ will make the cake?
13. _______ was present?
14. _______ curiosity would not be aroused by such a tale?
15. _______ will he teach?
13. For each of the following sentences, fill in the blank with either what or which. For example:
____ is happening?
What is happening?
_____ of my coats do you like the best?
Which of my coats do you like the best?
____ a surprise!
What a surprise!
1. _________ time does the train leave?
2. _________ of the three schools do you attend?
3. _________ is your name?
4. _________ a wonderful idea!
5. _________ planet is larger, Jupiter or Saturn?
6. _________ of your children is the cleverest?
7. _________ a mess!
8. __________ is your favorite dessert?
9. _________ would you prefer, tea or coffee?
10. _________ of these bicycles is yours?
12. Paying attention to correct word order, use the phrases given in brackets to rewrite the following direct questions as indirect questions. For example:
Who baked the cake? (They will ask)
They will ask who baked the cake.
Whom did you tell? (We want to know)
We want to know whom you told.
To which student had she given the prize? (Did you find out)
Did you find out to which student she had given the prize?
Who was that? (Please tell me)
Please tell me who that was.
1. Who are you? (I want to know)
2. Who swept the floor? (We will ask)
3. For whom did you organize the party? (Tell me)
4. Whom had they met? (I asked)
5. At what time will you reach the station? (I need to know)
6. Which horse won the race? (They will ask)
7. Whose answer is correct? (I wonder)
8. Which hill did they climb? (We will ask)
9. What do you mean? (Please tell us)
10. What made that noise? (I wonder)
11. Which students are ready? (Will you tell me)
12. For what purpose has he called the meeting? (Ask him)
13. Whom can we trust? (I am not sure)
14. Whose work was chosen? (They will ask)
15. Which book has she ordered? (We will find out)
16. Who am I? (Do you know)